Machine - in the most general cybernetic sense - any relatively isolated system in which the transformation (transformation) of power supply or information takes place. The term covers both natural physical systems (including living organisms) as well as technical devices and some abstract objects.

Can distinguish:

    power machines (energy in a broader sense) - if power (energy) is mainly transformed, although information (in control and regulation processes) is also necessary in them,
    information machines - if information is mainly transformed, although it is also necessary to provide power. An information machine defined in such a way may be in the form of a physical system (natural or artificial, eg a calculating machine), a virtual (virtual machine) or an abstract machine (eg a Turing machine).

In the narrower (technical) sense, the machine is only technical devices (usually composed of many mechanisms), used to convert energy or perform work (usually mechanical, through the movement of its parts).

Stands out:


power machines (in a narrower sense) - converting mechanical energy into other types of energy or converting other types of energy into mechanical energy (drive machines - engines), e.g.

  • thermal machine,
  • steam engine,
  • steam turbine,
  • engine,
  • hydraulic machine,
  • pneumatic machine,
  • electric machine,

working machines - drawing mechanical energy from drive machines (engines) and performing work, including:
technological machines - transforming raw materials or semi-finished products into ready semi-finished products or products,
transport machines - moving the body (changing their position).


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